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Aircraft manufacturers of several nations are
developing technology for the next plateau of international
aviation competition: the longrange, environmentally-acceptable
second generation supersonic passenger transport, which could be
flying by 2010.
Predicting large-scale increases in demand forlong-haul overwater passenger transportation early in the next century, market experts see a need for some 500 next generation supersonic transports worth an estimated $200 billion and140,000 jobs.
Capturing a major share of that market is vitally important to a U.S. aerospace industrythat is transitioning from a traditionally defense-dominated product line to a commercially driven manufacturing activity. To help boost the industry's competitiveness, NASA is conducting a High Speed Research (HSR) program that addresses the highest priority, highest risk technologies for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The HSR program is intended to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the vehicle; the decision to proceed with full-scale development will be up to industry.
This McDonnell Douglas conceptual design for a Mach 2.4 (1600 miles per hour) supersonic transport is sized to carry about 300 passengers over a distance of 5,000 nautical miles. A NASA/industry High Speed Civil Transport research effort is a first step toward determining whether such a plane can be economialily viable and environmentally acceptable.
The program is being conducted as a national team effort with
shared government / industry funding and responsibilities. The
team includes NASA's Langley, Lewis and Ames Research Centers and
Dryden Flight Research Center; engine manufacturers GE Aircraft
Engines and Pratt & Whitney division of United Technologies;
airframe manufacturers The Boeing Company, McDonnell Douglas
Corporation and Rockwell North American Aircraft Division; other
manufacturers; materials suppliers; and academic institutions.
The team has established a baseline design concept that serves as a common configuration for investigations. A full-scale craft of this design would have a maximum cruise speed of Mach 2.4, or about 1600 miles per hour, only marginally faster than the currently operational Anglo-French Concorde supersonic transport. However, the HSCT would have about double the range and triple the passenger capacity of the Concorde, and it would operate at an affordable ticket price, estimatedat 20 percent above comparable subsonic flight fares.
Phase I of the HSR program, which began in 1990 and continued through 1995, focused on environmental challenges: engine emission effects on the atmosphere, airport noise and the sonic boom. Much research remains to be accomplished in these and other areas, but Phase I established some clear lines of approach to major problems and spawned confidence among team members that environmental concerns can be satisfied.
Shown at a March 1996roliout ceremony, the RussianTU-144LL
supersonic flyinglaboratory is participating in NASA's
High Speed CivilTransport research program.
Phase II, initiated in 1994, focuses on thetechnology advances
needed for economic viability, principally weight reductions in
every aspect of the baseline configuration, because weight
affects not only the aircraft's performance but its acquisition
cost, operating costs and environmental compatibility. In
materialsand structures, the HSR team is developing, analyzing
and verifying the technology for trimming the baseline airframe
by 30-40 percent; in aerodynamics, a major goal is to minimize
air drag to enable a substantial increase in range; propulsion
research looks for environment-related and general efficiency
improvements in critical engine components, such as inlet
systems. Phase II includes computational and wind tunnel analyses
of the baseline HSCT and alternative designs. Other research
involves ground and flight simulations aimed at development of
advanced control systems, flight deck instrumentation and
In 1996, the HSR program moved beyond laboratory investigations into the actual supersonic flight realm through a NASA agreement with the Russian Tupolev Design Bureau, developers of the first supersonic transport, the TU-144, which first flew in passenger service in 1977. Under the agreement, a modified TU-144LL supersonic flying laboratory is providing up-to-date information of "real world" conditions in which the next generation supersonic transport will fly. TheTU-144LL rolled out of its hangar on March 17 to begin a six-month, 32 flight test program.
The TU-144LL fly at Mach 2.3, or about 1500 miles per hour,
close to the speed of the HSCT baseline concept (Mach 2.4) and is
thusan ideal vehicle for NASA studies of high temperature
materials and structures, acoustics, supersonic aerodynamics and
The TU-144LL is one of 17 TU-144s built. The major modification for the HSR work is a change of engines. The original engines were replaced by newer and larger NK-321 augmented turbofans initially employed to power Tupolev's TU-160 Blackjack bomber. Among anumber of other upgrades and modifications, the jetliner's passenger seats were removed to make room for the six NASA/U.S. industry experiments' instrumentation and data collection systems. Two additional experiments are to be conducted on the ground using aTU-144 engine.
The Russian TU-144LL supersonicilight laboratory employs a mechanical system to "droop" the nose section. This technique is necessitated by the fact that the airplane lands nose high and pilots could not see the runway with the nose in standard flight position. The NASA/industry High Speed Research team is working on an alternative approach.
The flight deck portion of the HSR programalso
progressed to flight status in 1996 with aseries of tests to
investigate a "synthetic vision" concept that could
obviate the need for forward-facing cockpit windows. The
reasonfor this departure from conventional design philosophy is
the fact that a supersonic transport of the baseline
configuration would land nose-high -- as do the Concorde and the
TU144 -- with the flight deck 45 feet above the runway and more
than 50 feet forward of the landing gear. In that position, the
pilots have no view of the runway ahead of them.
In the first generation supersonic transports -- the Concorde and the TU-144 -- the forward vision problem was solved by use of a mechanism that lowers -- or "droops" -- the forward part of the nose section for takeoffs and landings and thereby affords a clear view forward. The mechanism, however, imposes a heavy weight penalty that is not considered acceptable for the second generation vehicle.
A potential solution devised by the HSR team is the external visibility system (EVS), a group of sensors and imaging systems that would feed large-format cockpit displays of high resolution imagery and computer graphics. The EVS could eliminate forward-looking cockpit windows and obviate the need for the heavy, expensive mechanical nose-drooping system.
Future jetliners may employ adesign technique that eliminates forward facing cockpit windows and substitutes a 3D computer generated color display to givethe pilots "synthetic visiom " on takeoffs and landings. Already flight tested, this system could save thousands of pounds of weight that could be more productively used.
In the second generation supersonic transport,
the EVS could save thousands of pounds of droop mechanism weight,
weight that could be used to allow increased passenger capacity
or greater range. The synthetic vision system might also find
utility in subsonic air transportation, allowing pilots to fly
and land safely inlow visibility conditions; that would enable
increasing the number of flights in poor weather, reducing
terminal delays and cutting costs for airlines and passengers.
The HSR synthetic vision system was tested in a series of flights in 1995-96 at NASA's Wallops(Virginia) Flight Facility and at Langley Air Force Base in Hampton, Virginia. Sensors tested included a digital video camera, three infrared cameras and two microwave radar systems. The tests were flown on Langley Research Center's Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV), a Boeing 737 equipped with awindow less research cockpit in the passenger section in addition to the normal windowed cockpit, and in a Westinghouse BAC 1-11 avionics test aircraft.
The flight test program consisted of two phases. During the sensor data collection phase, the TSRV and the BAC 1-11 flew typical approach, cruise and holding patterns, testing the capability of the sensors to detect airborne traffic and ground objects. During the pilot-inthe-loop phase, the TSRV flew approaches and landings controlled from the research cockpitand tested the pilots' ability to control and land the aircraft relying only on sensor/computer-generated images and symbology.
All planned in-flight test points were achieved, and extensive data was collected from the radar, infrared and video sensors. More than 80 window less piloted approaches and landings were successfully conducted by pilots from Langley and Ames Research Centers, Boeingand McDonnell Douglas. Initial pilot comments and performance reports were encouraging with respect to the feasibility of using sensor/symbology displays for flight path control.
In addition to the principal members of the HSR team, the flight deck research included Honeywell, Inc., Phoenix, Arizona; Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; FLIR Systems, Portland, Oregon; and Westinghouse Electric Corporation.
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Updated: March 12, 2004