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FAQnewred.gif (906 bytes)           

Navigation Systems - Level 3

Navigation is an integral and critically important aspect of flying. If a pilot does not know where he is at all times while airborne, or cannot quickly determine his/her position in the sky by the use of the on-board equipment, then such a pilot is doomed to disaster. This chapter attempts to describe and discuss the common navigation instruments, navigation aids (both ground and airborne) and the associated systems, that together, are absolutely essential to the successful conduct of a cross country flight.

Sections in this Chapter:

blueball.gif (326 bytes) NAVAIDS (Navigation Aids)

     Radio Theory         
Very High / Ultra High Frequency (VHF / UHF) Radio Aids         
     Radar Systems
     Precautionary Use of Navigation Aids

blueball.gif (326 bytes) VOR (Very High Frequency Omnirange)

     VOR Accuracy
     Aircraft VOR Components
     Determination of Position
     Flight to a VOR Station

blueball.gif (326 bytes) DME (Distance Measuring Equipment)

     Basic Principles
     DME Components and Operations
     Flying a DME Arc

blueball.gif (326 bytes) ADF (Automatic Direction Finder)

     Limitations and Benefits
     ADF Components
     ADF Operations

blueball.gif (326 bytes) RMI (Radio Magnetic Indicator)
blueball.gif (326 bytes) ILS (Instrument Landing System)

     Glide Slope Equipment
     ILS Marker Beacons
     Lightning Systems
     NDBs at Marker Beacons Sites

blueball.gif (326 bytes) MLS (Microwave Landing System)

     System Description
     ILS Limitations
     MLS Advantages
     Approach Azimuth Guidance
     Back Azimuth Guidance
     Elevation Guidance
     Range Guidance
     Data Communications

blueball.gif (326 bytes) RNAV (Area Navigation)

     GPS (Global Positioning System)
     OMEGA Network
     INS (Inertial Navigation System)
     FMS (Flight Management Systems)
     Airspace Using RNAV

The basis for this section is the Flight Training Manual by Transport Canada.   However, the text was modified for US users and readers by Dr. Claudius Carnegie of the ALLSTAR website.  Tables and/or pictures were unchanged.  Any questions should be directed to Dr. Carnegie at directly.

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Updated: June 13, 2007